Infectious diseases caused by COVID 19 are currently in a high outbreak in the world. United States is the country with the largest number of diagnoses. By April 29, United States has accumulatively confirmed 1.03 million infected people, with a daily increase of 15,000-30,000 diagnoses. This article will share some knowledge about COVID 19 and hope it is helpful for epidemic prevention.
The clinical symptoms of pneumonia caused by COVID 19 are mainly manifested by fever, fatigue, and dry cough. A few patients have symptoms such as nasal congestion, runny nose, and diarrhea. In severe cases, dyspnea occurs, and in severe cases, it rapidly progresses to acute respiratory distress syndrome, septic shock, metabolic acidosis that is difficult to correct, and coagulopathy. It is worth noting that in the course of severe and critically ill patients, the disease can be moderate to low fever, or even no obvious fever. There are currently some patients with incubation periods that are not accompanied by any symptoms.
The main routes of transmission of COVID 19 are the respiratory droplets and contact transmission. The transmission routes of aerosol and feces-mouth have yet to be further clarified. Epidemiological investigations have shown that most cases can be traced to close contact with confirmed cases. Direct transmission refers to the infection caused by the patient’s sneezing, coughing, speaking, and exhaled gas being inhaled directly at close range; Aerosol transmission refers to the mixing of droplets in the air to form an aerosol, which causes infection after inhalation; Contact spread refers to the deposition of droplets on the surface of objects, contact with contaminated hands, and then contact with the mucous membranes of the mouth, nose, eyes, etc., resulting in infection.
People of all ages may be infected. The main infections are adults, and the elderly and frail people seem to be more likely to be infected. Children and pregnant women are susceptible to pneumonia caused by COVID 19.
How to prevent COVID 19 infection? Personal protection should be strengthened. People should avoid contact with wild livestock and prevent going to work and parties with sickness. If symptoms of respiratory tract infections such as fever and cough occur, you should go to the nearest hospital for fever according to the condition and wear a mask for medical treatment. At the same time, inform the doctor of similar patient or animal contact history and travel history. The specific recommendations are as follows:
(1) Avoid going to crowded public places. To avoid contact with patients with fever and respiratory tract infections, wear masks if required.
(2) Wash hands frequently. Especially when hands are contaminated with respiratory secretions, after touching public facilities, after caring for patients with fever, respiratory infections, or vomiting and diarrhea, after visiting hospitals, after handling contaminated objects, and after touching animals, animal feed, or animal feces.
(3) Don’t spit. Cover your mouth and nose with tissues or elbows when sneezing or coughing.
(4) Strengthen exercise, work regularly, and maintain indoor air circulation.
(1) Avoid contact with poultry, wild animals and their excreta and secretions, and avoid buying live poultry and wild animals.
(2) Avoid going to animal farms and slaughterhouses, live poultry and animal trading markets or stalls, wild animal habitats or other places. Take precautions when you must go, especially for occupationally exposed people.
(3) Avoid eating wild animals. Do not eat animals and their products that are already sick; purchase chilled poultry meat from regular channels; cook poultry and egg milk thoroughly; when handling fresh products, separate and clean utensils in time to avoid cross-contamination .
If you have symptoms of respiratory tract infections such as fever and cough, rest at home, reduce outings and travel, and ventilate the room when the weather is fine. Wear masks when contacting others. Avoid going to work, classes and parties with sick.
If symptoms of respiratory tract infections such as fever and cough occur, you should choose the nearest hospital for fever according to the condition and wear a mask for medical treatment. At the same time, inform the doctor of similar patient or animal contact history and travel history.
Before the epidemic is over, you cannot relax your vigilance, strengthen personal protection, do your best to stay at home, and avoid the source of infection. If it is necessary to go out, take precautions, wear masks, wash hands frequently, and disinfect with alcohol. Cherish life and stay away from viruses.